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190                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                  CHAP.
thousand men to raid Southern Persia. The province of
Kerman lay desolate, as Mahmud Shah, its drunken prince,
had revolted and the troops of Ghazan had been quartered
on it for a year ; indeed, so depopulated was the country
that only one thousand Afghans were met with, who were
attacked and robbed of their families and possessions.
At Shiraz there was no garrison to defend the city, but
the inhabitants armed themselves, and for once the well-
worn ruse of an ambuscade failed to lure them from
the security of their walls. Consequently no attack was
attempted on the capital of Pars, and the raiders, plunging
into the " Hot Country " at Kazerun, looted the nomads
of the province, and entered Khuzistan. The force
finally assembled at Hormuz in Khuzistan for the return
march, but being encumbered with thousands of animals
they suffered severe losses, and were obliged to leave
behind all their booty.
The Defeat of the Mongols in Syria^ A.H. 702 (1303).—
In A.H. 700 (1301) Ghazan made a second incursion into
Syria, but was foiled by the bad weather and retired after
sustaining heavy losses in his transport. Two years later
he once again crossed the Euphrates, but on this occasion,
after securing a minor success, he retired to watch events
from the left bank of the Tigris. Kutlugh Shah, who
commanded his army fifty thousand strong, met the
Egyptian army in the vicinity of Damascus. This battle
also was chequered, the right wing of the Egyptians
giving way and causing a panic in Damascus, while the
left wing stood firm, and compelled the invaders to retire
to the hills for the night. In the morning the battle was
renewed, with the result that the Mongols, who were
suffering from lack of water, attempted to break through
and flee, and being permitted to do so were followed up
and cut to pieces.
The Relations of Ghazan with Byzantium and the Western
P0WŁ&r-rIn A.H. 702 (1302) Ghazan received an embassy
fr$m Anironicus the Elder, who offered him the hand of
a Greek princess and begged that the Turks of Asia
Minor might be ordered to cease their raids into his
territories. Little did the Emperor realize that these